OpenServer Release 6
Upgrading from OpenServer Release 5

Revision 1.4

1     Overview.. 4

1.1     How to use this guide. 4

1.2     About Installing OpenServer Release 6. 4

2     Migrating your hardware configuration. 5

2.1     Configuration interfaces. 5

2.2     Sound cards. 5

2.3     Printers. 5

2.4     Network adapters. 5

2.5     Modems. 6

2.6     Serial ports. 6

2.7     Mass storage devices. 6

2.8     Tape backup. 6

2.9     Video adapters. 6

3     Migrating your filesystems and user data. 7

3.1     Archiving accounts on your OpenServer Release 5 system.. 7

3.2     Loading accounts onto your OpenServer Release 6 system.. 7

3.3     Migrating Release 5 filesystem data to Release 6. 8

3.3.1      Mounting legacy filesystems on Release 6. 8

3.3.2      Network Copy. 9

3.3.3      Filesystem copy using an external USB hard disk drive. 9

3.3.4      Dual Boot Configuration. 10

3.3.5      Backup/restore using Backup Edge from MicroLite. 11

3.4     Restoring OpenServer Release 5 backups. 11

3.5     Reinstalling OpenServer Release 6. 12

4     Migrating your networking configuration. 13

4.1     Migrating TCP/IP. 13

4.2     Files to migrate. 13

4.2.1      Migrating DHCP or AAS from OpenServer Release 5.0.4. 14

4.3     Migrating routing. 14

4.3.1      Differences. 14

4.3.2      Configuring routing. 14

4.3.3      Files to migrate. 14

4.3.4      Migrating gated and routed files to OpenServer Release 6. 15

4.4     Migrating DNS. 15

4.4.1      Configuring DNS. 15

4.4.2      Migrating DNS files. 15

4.5     Migrating NIS. 15

4.5.1      Configuring NIS in OpenServer Release 6. 15

4.5.2      Migrating NIS files to OpenServer Release 6. 15

4.6     Migrating UUCP. 16

4.6.1      Configuring UUCP. 16

4.6.2      Files to migrate. 16

4.7     Migrating an ftp server. 16

4.7.1      Configuring the OpenServer Release 6 ftp server 16

4.7.2      Files to migrate. 16

4.7.3      Procedure for migrating ftp files. 16

4.8     Migrating NFS. 17

4.8.1      Configuring NFS in OpenServer Release 6. 17

4.8.2      Files to migrate. 17

4.9     Migrating NTP. 18

4.10       NTP configuration. 18

4.10.1    Files to migrate. 18

4.11       Migrating PPP. 18

4.11.1    Migrating an SCO PPP configuration. 18

4.11.2    Migrating an SCO Morning Star PPP configuration. 18

4.12       Migrating Mail and Messaging. 19

4.12.1    Migrating user inboxes. 19

4.12.2    Migrating an MMDF configuration. 19

4.12.3    Migrating a sendmail configuration. 20

4.12.4    Preserving vacation notifications. 20

4.12.5    Preserving custom forwarding. 20

5     System software and command differences. 21

5.1     System startup. 21

5.2     Desktop environment. 21

5.3     Console and multiscreen switching. 21

5.4     Device node naming conventions. 22

5.4.1      Hard disk nodes. 22

5.5     Large file support and large-file aware commands. 22

5.6     Command directories and environments. 23

5.7     Filesystem types. 23

5.7.1      The VxFS filesystem.. 24

5.7.2      The HTFS filesystem.. 24

5.7.3      The /stand filesystem.. 24

5.7.4      The CDFS filesystem.. 24

5.7.5      The DOSFS filesystem.. 25

5.7.6      The memfs filesystem, /tmp, and /var/tmp. 25

5.8     Disk division and slice tables. 25

5.8.1      Disk configuration and filesystem commands. 25

5.9     Files and directories. 26

5.9.1      ls(C) command. 26

5.10       System management. 27

5.10.1    SCOadmin managers. 27

5.10.2    Backup and restore. 27

5.10.3    Administering CUPS printing. 28

5.10.4    Hardware/Kernel Manager and mkdev scripts. 28

5.10.5    Serial Manager 29

5.10.6    X Server 29

5.11       Process management. 29

5.11.1    fuser(ADM) command. 29

5.11.2    ps(C) command. 29

5.11.3    Process scheduler control 30

5.11.4    pstat(C) command. 30

5.11.5    Kernel profiling. 30

5.11.6    Multiprocessor commands. 30

5.11.7    Managing processors on MP systems. 30

5.11.8    Monitoring MP system performance. 30

5.11.9    Binding processes to a specific processor 30

5.12       Performance reporting. 31


1        Overview

This guide explains how to migrate SCO OpenServerTM Release 5 system data to the Release 6 platform. Because these platforms differ significantly, migration is accomplished by a set of detailed procedures rather than a single upgrade process. While OpenServer Release 6 contains many new and updated features and subsystems, much of the data from your OpenServer Release 5 system can be used under Release 6 with little or no modification.

System files subject to migration fall into two categories:

  Some data files, such as Domain Name Service (DNS) files, can simply be copied over to the OpenServer Release 6 system using procedures included in this guide.

  Certain configuration files do not work on Release 6 and must be revised or merged. In such cases, this guide describes how to save your configuration and provides links to additional information.

NOTE: Check the following web site regularly for updates to this and other OpenServer Release 6 documents:

1.1       How to use this guide

This guide includes three procedural chapters that should be followed in the order presented:

Migrating your hardware configuration

Explains what hardware is detected and configured automatically on Release 6 and the interfaces to be used when manual configuration is necessary.

Migrating your filesystems and user data

Details archiving user accounts, presents several methods for copying filesystems over to Release 6, and explains how to restore backups created with the Release 5 Backup Manager.

Migrating your networking configuration

Explains which configuration files can be copied over to Release 6 for all network subsystems and protocols, and those that require relocation and/or merging with their Release 6 counterparts. Also documents key differences and additional considerations related to new features. This chapter covers the migration of sendmail and MMDF configurations as well.

The chapter on “System software and command differences” is a reference to orient the administrator in the OpenServer Release 6 environment, with detailed explanations of how it differs from Release 5.

1.2       About Installing OpenServer Release 6

After creating your backups and printing out or recording your system configuration, consult the OpenServer Release 6 Getting Started Guide and Late News on the SCO web site before beginning your installation (see NOTE above).

2        Migrating your hardware configuration

For the most part, your hardware devices will be configured automatically when you install OpenServer Release 6. If an adapter, bus card, data port, or peripheral is not recognized after the installation, use the information in this chapter to configure your hardware.

NOTE: Most OpenServer Release 5 devices and drivers are supported under Release 6, but you should verify this with the hardware compatibility web page: Specialized devices (such as multiport serial cards) require drivers written by the hardware vendor. You may need to obtain new drivers for Release 6 from the vendor.

2.1       Configuration interfaces

SCO OpenServer Release 6 provides a set of SCOadmin managers similar to those available on Release 5. For differences between Release 6 configuration interfaces and those provided with OpenServer Release 5, see “System software and command differences.”

Most hardware is automatically detected and configured. Some hardware requires configuration using mkdev scripts that can be run from the command line (the /usr/lib/mkdev directory) or with the SCOAdmin Hardware/Kernel Manager. The UnixWare Device Configuration Utility (DCU) has been added to SCOadmin, but it is intended to resolve conflicts with older hardware that cannot be detected and configured automatically.

For more information, consult the “Hardware” topic in the OpenServer Release 6 online documentation.

2.2       Sound cards

The SCOAdmin Audio Manager has been removed. Sound cards are detected and configured automatically at install time. Currently, only the Intel ICH4 and prior chipsets that comply with
the AC'97 standard are supported. A new driver will be made available that extends support to include newer chipsets.

2.3       Printers

It is not possible to migrate your print system configuration – simply use the SCOadmin Printer Manager to re-create your setup. Note that CUPS is also supported in OpenServer Release 6.

2.4       Network adapters

Use the Network Configuration Manager to configure LAN network adapter drivers, and LAN and WAN protocols. Note the configuration details of the network adapter hardware (IRQ, I/O address range, memory address range, DMA channel) in your system so that you can configure your OpenServer Release 6 system with these values. For OpenServer Release 5, note the details displayed by the Network Configuration Manager.

For more information, see “Configuring network hardware” in the OpenServer Release 6 online documentation.

2.5       Modems

Use the Modem Configuration Manager to:

  add serial and ISDN modems to your system

  configure WAN protocols including PPP

For more information, see “Configuring modems” in the OpenServer Release 6 online documentation.

NOTE: PC Card (PCMCIA) modems must be configured using the using the Device Configuration Utility (DCU). ISDN modems are configured with the Modem Configuration Manager. ISDN bus adapters are configured with the Network Configuration Manager.

2.6       Serial ports

You no longer need to run the Serial Manager to add, modify, or delete serial boards. These devices are automatically configured at boot-time. However, you do need to run the Serial Manager to configure the ports attached to the boards and set up the inittab entries. Simply starting the manager is sufficient to configure the ports; they are configured automatically and you can exit.

2.7       Mass storage devices

Use the Device Configuration Utility (DCU) to add support for tape, CD-ROM, and hard disk drives that were not auto-detected during the installation process.

2.8       Tape backup

Most tape drives supported on OpenServer Release 5 can be used on OpenServer Release 6, but some floppy-tape (QIC-80) devices may not be supported.

For more information, see “Adding tape drives” in the OpenServer Release 6 online documentation.

NOTE: The OpenServer Release 5 Backup Manager is not supported in SCO OpenServer Release 6. You can read and restore backup tapes from your SCO OpenServer Release 5 system as described in “Restoring OpenServer Release 5 backups”.

2.9       Video adapters

During the OpenServer Release 6 installation, you can select to have your video adapter automatically configured. The Video Configuration Manager interface has been replaced with the X.Org configuration tool and can be run by entering scoadmin video.

For more information, refer to the X.Org documentation under "Graphical Environment" in the online documentation.

3        Migrating your filesystems and user data

This chapter explains how to:

  Archive user account information

  Load user accounts on Release 6

  Copy Release 5 filesystems over to Release 6

  Restore data from Release 5 backups

3.1       Archiving accounts on your OpenServer Release 5 system

The ap (account profile) utility is supported on both platforms Should you need to gather accounts from multiple systems or routinely copy accounts across platforms, you can do it more simply using ap(ADM). ap gathers account information from the /etc/passwd file and the Protected Password database. Irrelevant information about the user (including unsuccessful login attempts, unsuccessful password changes, and the location and time of the last login) is not included in the profile.

To create a complete archive of your present users, log in as root and enter this command:

ap -d -g -v > profile.acct

To archive a subset of accounts, simply include a list as in this example:

ap -d -g -v nathanb mavrac sergeo renard > profile.acct

You can also ignore the group membership information for each account by dropping the -g (with either of the above commands).

3.2       Loading accounts onto your OpenServer Release 6 system

Using the profile.acct file saved from your OpenServer Release 5 system, you can later load the accounts on your OpenServer Release 6 system with the restore option of the ap command.

Because long passwords are supported in different ways in OpenServer Release 5 and OpenServer Release 6, there are two ways that you can create a user account from the profile depending on how you want to handle user accounts that have long passwords.

The first method truncates long passwords to 8 characters. Enter the following command:

ap -r -f profile.acct usernames

If you do not specify any usernames, all accounts stored in profile.acct are copied to the system.

The new accounts should now be in place and ready for use. The ap command will warn you if any passwords had to be truncated. Instruct these users to only enter the first 8 characters of their password when they first log in. They will also be required to change their password at this time.

The second method allows you to specify a password using the -p option:

ap -r -f profile.acct -p password usernames

(Again, usernames is optional.) All user accounts with passwords longer than 8 characters will be assigned the same password. These users are prompted to change their password when they first log in. For example, if the users nathanb and mavrac both had passwords longer than 8 characters, the following command would set their login password to “Global1”:

ap -r -f profile.acct -p Global1

Other accounts present in the file with short passwords are unaffected.

If you want users to have different initial passwords, invoke one command for each user.

3.3       Migrating Release 5 filesystem data to Release 6

There are a number of methods for migrating data from a Release 5 system to a Release 6 installation, including:

  Network copy

  Mounting legacy filesystems on Release 6

  Filesystem copy using an external USB hard disk drive

  Dual boot configuration

  Backup/restore using MicroLite Backup Edge

The method or combination of methods you choose will depend upon your needs. We suggest that you keep the following considerations in mind:

  Transferring applications with corresponding data takes careful planning. Be sure to allow adequate time for bringing up the applications on the new system.

  Copying your data over to Release 6 allows the filesystems to be reorganized with VxFS and enables you to take advantage of Large File Support (LFS).

  The best method is one that copies the data and leaves the original system intact. This allows you return to the original system should problems arise with the new system during the transition period.

  Will you need to switch the workload quickly and frequently between the old Release 5 system and the new Release 6 systems? A requirement of this type might arise if production must continue on the Release 5 system during business hours, but you wish to run tests with Release 6 during off-hours (until you are ready to switch permanently to Release 6).

  Do you have the necessary hardware on hand for the method(s) you have chosen (network gear, disk and tape drives, or tape media)?

  Are you prepared for hardware failures? Reconfiguring internal hardware can be problematic; network, USB or hot add SCSI disks are preferred.

  Any method involving transferring data with cpio will not preserve the creation time on files or the creation/modification time on directories. Normally, this is not a problem unless your applications have special needs.

3.3.1       Mounting legacy filesystems on Release 6

The simplest method of migrating data from a SCO Openserver Release 5 system is to create backups and restore them after installing OpenServer Release 6.

Another method is it to add an existing Release 5 disk (5.0.6 or later) to an SCO OpenServer Release 6 system, mount the filesystems, and then copy all of the files from the Release 5 disk to filesystems on a Release 6 disk. Both methods allow you to take advantage of the vxfs filesystem and large file support.

If the wd supplement was never installed on your Release 5 system, you must install it before bringing any drives over to Release 6.

Disks from systems previous to Release 5.0.6 are not supported. You must use backups to move data to Release 6 if this is the case.

To add a disk created on OpenServer 5.0.6 or 5.0.7 to an OpenServer Release 6 system, follow these steps:

1.      Power-down your Release 6 system and connect the Release 5 drive.

2.      Power-up the system. During the boot process, OpenServer Release 6 discovers the new disk and displays a message to that effect, and immediately reboots -- this is normal. As the system is coming back up, the new drive(s) are listed along with the previously existing devices.

3.      When the boot process completes, log in as root and run the Filesystem Manager (scoadmin filesystem). Select MountAdd Mount ConfigurationLocal.

4.      When the Add Mount Configuration screen appears, click on the Device File pulldown list to get a complete list of mountable filesystems. Click on the Filesystem Type field to reveal the type.

5.      Enter a mount point for the filesystem and select the desired mount options. Click on OK and exit the Filesystem Manager.

You can now copy data from the Release 5 disk to filesystems on a Release 6 disk.

3.3.2       Network Copy

Many systems are already connected to a network but not directly connected to an archival storage device, making network transfer of the data very convenient.

Arrange for a short and (if possible) isolated network. Attaching both systems to a switching hub is ideal, as it protects the rest of the network from the high traffic load and protects the transfer from network problems.

For best results, reassign the host name and IP address of the old (Release 5) system to a temporary name/address, so that the new system can be installed with the original name and address.

Add the Release 5 system to the /.rhosts file on the Release 6 system, for example: root

Make sure that /.rhosts has permission 0600 on the Release 6 system:

chmod 0600 /.rhosts

On the Release 5 system, use a command of the following form to transfer each filesystem in turn:

cd /fs
find . | cpio -oc | rcmd new_system 'cd /fs; cpio -icdm

3.3.3       Filesystem copy using an external USB hard disk drive

A high capacity external USB 2.0 drive is an ideal tool for moving filesystem data. Such drives can be purchased at reasonable prices in sizes up to a terabyte. Typically, all of the data on a Release 5 system can be accommodated on a single drive and used to copy the data over to your Release 6 system.

WARNING: You must have Maintenance Pack 3 installed on your Release 5.0.7 system before you begin this process.

1.      Make certain that your external hard drive and the port on your computer are both USB 2.0. Check your system BIOS and ensure that USB 2.0 support is enabled (Hi-Speed mode). If you are using a USB 1.x port or disk (or USB 2.0 mode is disabled in the BIOS), the data transfer speeds will be far too slow to be useful.

2.      Make note of the filesystems (and sizes) that you plan to copy over to the external drive before you begin.

3.      Attach the USB disk device to your Release 5.0.7 system and run mkdev hd as described in “Configuring a USB hard disk” in your Release 5 online documentation.

4.      See “Installing a hard disk” in your Release 5 online documentation for more detailed information on running mkdev hd the second time to create filesystems. You can make a set of filesystems that duplicate those present on your current Release 5 disk(s).

5.      Add the desired filesystem(s) to your mount configuration by starting the Filesystem Manager. Select Add Mount Configuration from the Mount menu, then select Local.

6.      Enter a temporary mount point (for example, /fs_copy, /home_copy, and so on) for each filesystem and be sure to de-select the option “When to Mount: At System Startup.”

7.      When your settings are complete, click on OK and exit the Filesystem Manager.

8.      Copy the data in each filesystem as shown in this example for a filesystem named fs:

cd /fs
find . | cpio -pdm /fs_copy

9.      Unmount the filesystems, unplug the USB disk, and attach it to your Release 6 system.

10.   Log in as root and issue the following command to find your filesystems:


For example, you might find that your filesystems show up on devices       /dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s0 through /dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s3:

/dev/boot EAFS MOUNTED
/dev/boot vxfs MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s0 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s1 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s2 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s3 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED

In this example, the filesystems show up as four slices (s0 through s3) on partition number 3 (p3). This combined partition and slice notation is new to Release 6 – see “Hard disk nodes” for more information (including compatibility with traditional OpenServer device nodes).

Run divvy on the partition node for the USB disk, as in this example using the information obtained from getlclfsdev:

divvy /dev/rdsk/c2b0t0d0p3

For each filesystem division, use the divvy “name” (n) option to name your filesystems and create device nodes. For example, if you name a filesystem “fs,” then /dev/fs and /dev/rfs are created.

Use the Filesystem Manager to mount the filesystems you created. This also adds the proper entries to /etc/default/filesys.

3.3.4       Dual Boot Configuration

If you need to switch back and forth between Release 5 and Release 6, you can create a dual boot configuration as described in this section.

WARNING: To protect your existing data, we recommend that you install a new disk for loading Release 6, and power down or disconnect all existing disks during the Release 6 installation. After Release 6 is installed, power up or reconnect all of the disks.

The recommended way to switch between boot targets is to using the system BIOS to select the desired boot disk. Release 6 is capable of booting even if the disk target number has changed from the time of installation.

1.      Once Release 6 is up and running with all the disks powered on, you can find the pre-existing filesystems using this command:


This utility lists all the filesystems discovered by the system and whether or not they are mounted. For example, you might find that your filesystems show up on devices /dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s0 through /dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s3:

/dev/boot EAFS MOUNTED
/dev/boot vxfs MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s0 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s1 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s2 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED
/dev/dsk/c2b0t0d0p3s3 HTFS NOT-MOUNTED

2.      Run divvy for each pre-existing partition you have found, as in this example:

divvy /dev/rdsk/c2b0t0d0p3

Note that the partition numbering in Release 6 is in the opposite order from Release 5. However, the divisions do appear in the same logical order.

3.      For each filesystem division, use the divvy “name” (n) option to name your filesystems and create device nodes. For example, if you name a filesystem fs, then /dev/fs and /dev/rfs are created.

4.      Use the Filesystem Manager to mount the filesystems you created. This will also add the proper entries in /etc/default/filesys.

5.      Repeat this procedure for each disk and each partition you have found.

3.3.5       Backup/restore using Backup Edge from MicroLite

This procedure will be added when the new version of Backup Edge for OpenServer Release 6 becomes available.

3.4        Restoring OpenServer Release 5 backups

You can use the cpio(C) command line to restore archives created with the Backup Manager under OpenServer Release 5.

To restore an OpenServer Release 5 backup on OpenServer Release 6 using cpio:

1.      Log in as root.

2.      To list the backup contents, enter this command:

cpio -itv -I/dev/ctape1

3.      To restore the entire backup, enter the command:

cpio -iAmudB -I/dev/ctape1

where /dev/ctape1 is the path to your tape device.

You can select specific files and directories by adding them to the end of the command. If, for example, you wanted to restore the /tmp/hold/time file, you would enter:

cpio -iAmudB -I/dev/ctape1 tmp/hold/time

Should you want to restore an entire directory, for example, /tmp/hold you would enter:

cpio -iAmudB -I/dev/ctape1 “tmp/hold/*”

NOTE: The root “/ ” slash must be omitted – take care when entering these commands.

3.5       Reinstalling OpenServer Release 6

Note that if you re-install OpenServer 6, there is no installation option that preserves your existing filesystem configuration. Any filesystems that you have created or modified from their installation defaults will need to be created again when you re-install. For example, if you create a separate /u filesystem on OSR6 and then re-install, you will need to re-create the separate /u filesystem during the re-install.

4        Migrating your networking configuration

There are several key differences in networking for OpenServer Release 6:

  Network Configuration Manager / netconfig(ADM)

   The Loopback interface is not displayed anymore, but the Loopback configuration still exists.

   The Add New WAN Connection option on the Hardware menu has been removed. You can no longer configure PPP or SLIP connections using netconfig(ADM).

  exportfs(NADM) has been updated to look in both /etc/dfs/dfstab and /etc/exports for remote resource information. Two new options modify this behavior:

   The -e option specifies to look for export options only in /etc/exports

   The -d option specifies to look for export options only in /etc/dfs/dfstab

  SCO PPP is no longer provided or supported. It has been replaced by SCO PPP from Morning Star.

  SLIP is no longer supported.

  The NetWare and IPX/SPX products are no longer provided or supported.


The following networking subsystems and protocols are discussed in this chapter:










  Mail and messaging

4.1       Migrating TCP/IP

In OpenServer Release 6, TCP/IP can be configured over a network interface at installation time, or later using the Network Configuration Manager. You should note the hostname, domain name, IP address, netmask, broadcast address and frame type of the existing network interfaces so that you can configure these on your OpenServer Release 6 system. To obtain these values, run the Network Configuration Manager on your Release 5 system or execute netstat –rn.

4.2       Files to migrate

The configuration files are as follows:


hostnames and IP addresses